wolbring

Archive for the ‘Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance’ Category

new article by me Nanoscale science and technology and social cohesion

In Ableism and Sustainable Development, Ableism Ethics and Governance, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance, nano, nanoscale, nanotechnology on February 13, 2010 at 5:04 am

Title: Nanoscale science and technology and social cohesion
Author: Gregor Wolbring Email author(s)
Address: Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Science, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, T2N 4N1, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Journal: International Journal of Nanotechnology 2010 – Vol. 7, No.2/3 pp. 155 – 172
Abstract: Nanoscale sciences and technologies are developing at a rapid pace enabling other science and technology fields and generating new products and processes. Nanoscale and other science and technology products and processes can impact positively or negatively various aspects of social cohesion such as belonging, shared values, identity, feelings of commitment, equal opportunities, participation in society and social life and the respect and tolerance for diversity directly or through impacting other parameters such as food, health and economic security. One area hardly covered yet is the impact of ableism and its transhumanised form on different areas of social cohesion and the role of nanoscale and other sciences and technologies. The coverage of social cohesion within nanoscale science and technology discourses and vice versa and the linkage to ableism is one aspects of this paper. The paper suggests a way forward for the nanoscale, the ableism and the social cohesion discourses.
Keywords: nanotechnology; nanoscale; science and technology; social cohesion; human security; social well-being; ableism; human enhancement; ability studies; disability; transhumanisation; nanoscience.

New paper from me

In Ableism, Ableism Ethics and Governance, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance on December 1, 2009 at 3:18 am

What next for the human species? Human performance enhancement, ableism

and pluralism p. 141-163 in Development Dialogue No 52 August 2009 called What Next Vol II The case for pluralism publisher Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation
http://www.dhf.uu.se/pdffiler/DD_52/Development_Dialogue_52_art8.pdf

EU Parliament approves law ensuring Internet access as a fundamental right

In Ableism and design, Ableism and Law, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Design, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance on May 7, 2009 at 12:43 pm

see here

Bionic Contact Lens

In Ableism and general human performance enhancement;, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Design, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance, Body, Enhancement on May 2, 2009 at 3:14 pm

he University of Washington’s Parviz Research Group is actively developing a contact lens containing embedded circuitry to enhance vision. The technologies developed could be the building blocks of future products such as lenses that allow zoom capability, advanced video devices for use with cell phones, or even image enhancement overlays such the heat-maps shown in Predator…..

article here

Make me a superhero: The pleasures and pitfalls of body enhancement

In Ableism and general human performance enhancement;, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance on May 2, 2009 at 3:10 pm

Andy Miah in the Guardian, UK
article here

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The underground world of “neuroenhancing” drugs.

In Ableism and Cognition, Ableism and general human performance enhancement;, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance, Cognition, Enhancement, Neurotechnology on April 22, 2009 at 3:17 pm

by Margaret Talbot April 27, 2009

Every era has its defining drug. Neuroenhancers are perfectly suited for our
efficiency-obsessed, BlackBerry-equipped office culture.

Keywords Neuroenhancing Drugs; Neuroenhancers; Students; Adderall;
Stimulants; Smart Drugs; Underground

more here

Int J of Disability, Community and Rehabilitation Special Issue on Nanotechnology, Disability, Community and Rehabilitation

In Ableism, Ableism and general human performance enhancement;, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance, Body, Enhancement, nano, nanotechnology on March 25, 2009 at 12:39 am

New in the Int J of Disability, Community and Rehabilitation (IJDCR)

The issue can be found here

An IJDCR Special Issue on Nanotechnology, Disability, Community and Rehabilitation edited by Gregor Wolbring,
Community Rehabilitation and Disability Studies Program, Dept of Community
Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Canada

Articles:

Editor’s Introduction to the Special Issue, by Gregor Wolbring

If Nanotechnology Were a Magic Wand What Obligations Would it Bring? Or:
The Right to Enhance Versus the Right to Morphological Freedom, by Heather
Bradshaw

Optimization of Human Capacities and the Representation of the Nanoscale
Body, by Michele Robitaille

Nanotechnology: Changing the Disability Paradigm, by Laura Cabrera

The journal welcomes submissions on a continuous basis that focus on nanoscale and nanoscale-enabled science and technology as it impacts on disabled people and the broader community and the role of rehabilitation professionals, family members and others.

Demands On Governing New Technologies In Sports Increase

In Ableism and general human performance enhancement;, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance on December 9, 2008 at 5:55 pm

Gregor excellently outlined in his article on Oscar Pitorius how new and emerging science and technology products enable the body to go beyond its species-typical boundaries and the challenges of this development for sport regulations. New developments of sports equipment or of food products constantly push the boundaries of adding human abilities or of going beyond human abilities. Performance enhancements raise governance questions : most sport activities need a special equipment but when is the line of ‘necessity’ crossed? Currently, LZR racing swimming suits that apply nanotechnology are discussed. The debate does not stop short with swimming but reaches from bowling or biking to golf.  Often, questions of justice are at the forefront of the discussions: not everybody has access to these new and expensive equipments. However, this discussion does not go far enough. What has to be questioned critically is the attitude of ‘winning at all costs’ which demands for ever increasing outcomes that again have to be supported by technological means because human beings have natural limits. Apart from that, discussions on ‘nanotechnology screening systems’ seem to be naive regarding all the problems of identifying nanoparticles and engineered nanostructures.

Article: Nano helps win gold – Clothing to experiment: Nanotech is changing the sports arena http://www.nanomagazine.co.uk/readArticle.php?id=33

ONCE International Research and Development Award in New Technologies for the Blind and Visually Impaired

In Ableism Ethics and Governance and Design, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance, Disability, nano, nanoscale, NBICS on October 6, 2008 at 9:17 pm

ONCE International Research and Development Award in New Technologies for the Blind and Visually Impaired

The aim of the International R&D Award in New Technologies for the Blind and Visually Impaired, held bi-annually by the ONCE (Spanish National Organisation for the Blind), is to distinguish and recompense those researches whose development, use or application represent a clear improvement in the quality of life, equality of opportunities or the process of social and working integration of the blind and visually impaired.
Research areas:

Through this Award, ONCE seeks to stimulate the promotion of scientific technical research aimed at technological developments and innovations in the field of engineering, artificial intelligence, computing, telecommunications, microtechnology and nanoelectronics, with the ultimate purpose of correcting or overcoming the limitations suffered by the blind or the visually impaired on account of their disability.

More here

Call for papers: On the impact of nanoscale science and technology on disability, community and rehabilitation.

In Ableism, Ableism Ethics and Governance and its intersection with Disability Ethics, Ableism Ethics and Governance and Science and Technology governance, Call for papers, Disability, nano, nanoscale, nanotechnology, NBICS on September 29, 2008 at 1:40 pm

Call for papers

On the impact of nanoscale science and technology on disability,

community and rehabilitation.

For a special issue of the International Journal on Disability, Community & Rehabilitation (IJDCR) (http://www.ijdcr.ca/copyright.shtml)

Guest Editor: Gregor Wolbring, Community Rehabilitation and Disability Studies Program, Dept of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary. Please submit abstracts to the Guest Editor via e-mail by 30 October, 2008.

Invitation

Nanoscale science and technology, while still in its infancy, describes a rapidly growing sphere of enquiry, with many and varied implications for the disability field. To establish a ‘benchmark’ of the current state of knowledge and conceptual understanding, the Editors of IJDCR decided a special issue should be devoted to the topic. Background information and potential topics are presented below.

We invite potential contributors, regardless of fields of study (discipline), to submit 250-word Abstracts that articulate the conceptual arguments and knowledge base to be covered in a critical analysis on some aspect of the impact of nanoscale science and technology on disability, community and/or rehabilitation. Please submit abstracts to the Guest Editor via e-mail by 30 October, 2008.

From selected abstracts, we will request full articles of 3000-5000 words (excluding figures and tables) of original research and scholarship on a range of topics. Note that an invitation to submit an article does not guarantee its publication. Every submitted article will be subject to blind peer review and recommendations arising.

Background

Nanotechnology in all its meanings allows for, among other things, the manipulation of materials on an atomic or molecular scale and enables a new paradigm of science and technology that sees different technologies converging at the nanoscale namely:

1. nanoscience and nanotechnology,
2. biotechnology and biomedicine, including genetic engineering,
3. information technology, including advanced computing and communications,
4. cognitive science (neuro-engineering),
5. synthetic biology;

hence, the designation “NBICS” (nano-bio-info-cogno-synbio).

Many lists of anticipated nanoproducts exist (Institute of Nanotechnology 2005;Kostoff et al. 2006). Applications for NBICS products are envisioned in areas such as the environment, energy, water, weapons and other military applications, globalization, agriculture, and health (e.g., more efficient diagnostics and genetic testing, cognitive enhancement; life extension and enhancing human performance in general) (M.Roco 2003). Many believe that advances in NBICS hold the key for extreme life extension to the level of immortality and the achievement of morphological (Anders Sandberg 2001) and genomic freedom(Wolbring 2003). NBICS-medicine is envisioned by some to have the answer to global problems of disease and ill medical and social health. Others argue for the pursuit of ‘morphological freedom’ (Anders Sandberg 2001)–allowing the human body to move beyond typical functioning of the species. Disabled people are often highlighted as the beneficiaries of NBICS-medicine products. NBICS applications and the selling of NBICS health products focuses mostly on offering disabled people medical solutions (prevention or cure/normative adaptation) and might move towards transhumanist solutions (augmentation, enhancement of the human body) but rarely offers social solutions (adaptation of the environment, acceptance, societal cures of equal rights and respect). Many NBICS applications/products for disabled people are envisioned and are under development(Wolbring 2005).

We chose this topic for an issue of IJDCR because of how the discourses around these new and emerging nanoscale science and technologies are emerging and their potential impact on people with disabilities, the communities linked to them and/or practitioners as well as others. Consumers and researchers linked to the disability discourse are involved will shape the positive or negative consequences for everyone involved.

Nanotechnology and NBICS have an impact on disabled people in at least four main ways.

Impact of NBICS on disabled people (Wolbring 2006)

NBICS may develop tools to adapt the environment in which disabled people live and to give disabled people tools that would allow them to deal with environmental challenges. This side of S&T would make the life of disabled people more liveable without changing the identity and biological reality of the disabled person

NBICS may develop tools that would diagnose the part of disabled people’s biological reality seen by others as deficient, defect, impaired and ‘disabled’ thus allowing for preventative measures

NBICS may develop tools that would eliminate that portion of disabled people’s biological reality seen by others as deficient, defect, impaired and ‘disabled’.

NBICS may be a target for – and an influence upon – the discourses, concepts, trends and areas of action that impact disabled persons.

Discourses:

* The discourse around the term human security
* The religious discourse
* The politics of biodiversity
* The politics of inequity
* The politics of the ethics discourse.
* The politics of law:
* The politics of raising the acceptance level for a given technology
* The politics of setting goals and priorities
* The politics of language
* The politics of self perception and identity (Body politics)
* The politics of red herrings
* The politics of interpreting International treaties
* The politics of governance
* The Politics of evaluation, measuring, analysis, and outcome tools

Concepts:

* Self identity security
* Ability security
* Cultural identity/diversity
* Morphological freedom and morphological judgement(Anders Sandberg 2001)
* Freedom of choice and tyranny of choice
* Duty to fix oneself
* Duty to know
* Parental responsibility
* Societal responsibility

Trends:

* Change in the concepts of health, disease and ‘disability’/’impairment’
* The appearance of enhancement medicine and the acceptance of beyond species-typical functioning
* Moving from curative to enhancement medicine; decrease in curative medicine and the appearance of the transhumanist/enhancement burden of disease
* Moving from human rights to sentient rights
* Moving from morphological freedom to morphological judgement
* The appearance of the techno poor disabled and impaired
* Moving from freedom of choice to tyranny of choice judgement

Areas of Action:

* Nanotechnology/NBIC for development
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and the UN Millennium Development Goals
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and global medical and social health
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and accessibility
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and law
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and water and sanitation
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and disaster management
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and weapons/war
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and ethics/philosophy
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and social science/anthropology
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and community
* Nanotechnology/NBIC and networking

All of the above discourses, concepts, trends and areas of actions impact on disabled people[1] and others.

Potential contributors to this Special Issue might consider areas from the above table or one of the following topics:

1. What are the potential positive and negative impacts of envisioned nanoscale science and technology products and research and development on:
* disabled people,
* the community around them
* practitioners, consumers and researchers linked to the disability discourse
* community rehabilitation and the rehabilitation field in general
* inclusive education and the education of disabled people in general
* employability of disabled people
* citizenship of disabled people
* body image of disabled people
* medical and social health policies and their impact on disabled people
* health care for disabled people
* the elderly
* disabled people in low income countries
* laws related to disabled people such as the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities
* the concept of personhood
* concept of health and health care
* the measure of disability adjusted life years and other measurements used to guide health care dollar allocation
* quality of life assessment
2. What are the potential positive and negative impacts of the new social philosophy of transhumanism that is seen as being enabled by nanoscale science and technology products and research and development?
3. What impacts of potential nanoscale science and technology products and research and development onto disabled people will impact other marginalized groups?

For more information about the International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation (IJDCR) please go to http://www.ijdcr.ca.

References

Anders Sandberg. Morphological Freedom — Why We not just Want it, but Need it. 2001.

Institute of Nanotechnology (2005). Research Applications And Markets In Nanotechnology In Europe 2005

Kostoff, Ronald et al. “The seminal literature of nanotechnology research.” Journal of Nanoparticle Research (2006): 1-21.

M.Roco, W. Bainbridge eds. Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science. 2003. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht Hardbound.

Wolbring, G. “SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND THE TRIPLE D (DISEASE, DISABILITY, DEFECT).” Ed. William Sims Bainbridge Mihail C.Roco National. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 2003. 232-43

Wolbring, G (2005). HTA Initiative #23 The triangle of enhancement medicine, disabled people, and the concept of health: a new challenge for HTA, health research, and health policy Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research, Health Technology Assessment Unit, Edmonton, Alberta Canada

Wolbring, G (2006). Scoping paper on Nanotechnology and disabled people. Center for Nanotechnology in Society Arizona State University [On-line].

[1] The term ‘disabled people’, as used here, reflects the way in which environmental factors impact on the ability of individuals with sensory, motor, cognitive or other variations to participate in society, consistent with its usage by Disabled Peoples’ International.